Dreyfus model of skill acquisition

The Dreyfus model of skill acquisition is a model for how learners acquire new skills. It consists of five stages of skill development, with clearly defined drivers, needs, and expectations ascribed to each level.

The five stages of the dreyfus model

"...consider the case of the developer who claims ten years of experience, but in reality it was one year of experience repeated nine times. That doesn't count as experience. "

- Andy Hunt, Pragmatic Thinking and Learning

NoviceExperience early success, accomplish an immediate goalContext-free rules, recipes, step-by-step explicit instructionsDifficulty identifying and correcting mistakes, easily confused
Advanced beginnerWork independently, reduce dependency on othersMinimal instructions, reliable reference materialsKnows the basics, lacks comprehensive understanding, needs help troubleshooting
CompetentShow initiative, recognition for hard workDeliberate planning, directional guidanceTroubleshoots independently, working conceptual model, solves novel problems with effort, mentors novices
ProficientAutonomy, recognition for elegant solutionsClear big picture, nuanced informationLearns from indirect experience, quickly applies proven solutions, applies maxims, deviates from plans appropriately
ExpertInnovation, industry recognitionFreedomWorks quickly and intuitively, invents new solutions, improves the state of the art, pushes boundaries

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Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition Knowledge Graph