Dreyfus model of skill acquisition
The Dreyfus model of skill acquisition is a model for how learners acquire new skills. It consists of five stages of skill development, with clearly defined drivers, needs, and expectations ascribed to each level.
The five stages of the dreyfus model
"...consider the case of the developer who claims ten years of experience, but in reality it was one year of experience repeated nine times. That doesn't count as experience. "
- Andy Hunt, Pragmatic Thinking and Learning
|Novice||Experience early success, accomplish an immediate goal||Context-free rules, recipes, step-by-step explicit instructions||Difficulty identifying and correcting mistakes, easily confused|
|Advanced beginner||Work independently, reduce dependency on others||Minimal instructions, reliable reference materials||Knows the basics, lacks comprehensive understanding, needs help troubleshooting|
|Competent||Show initiative, recognition for hard work||Deliberate planning, directional guidance||Troubleshoots independently, working conceptual model, solves novel problems with effort, mentors novices|
|Proficient||Autonomy, recognition for elegant solutions||Clear big picture, nuanced information||Learns from indirect experience, quickly applies proven solutions, applies maxims, deviates from plans appropriately|
|Expert||Innovation, industry recognition||Freedom||Works quickly and intuitively, invents new solutions, improves the state of the art, pushes boundaries|
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